linux命令行技巧

命令

描述

apropos whatis

显示和word相关的命令。 参见线程安全

man -t man | ps2pdf - > man.pdf

生成一个PDF格式的帮助文件

which command

显示命令的完整路径名

time command

计算命令运行的时间

time cat

开始计时. Ctrl-d停止。参见sw

nice info

运行一个低优先级命令(这里是info)

renice 19 -p $$

使脚本运行于低优先级。用于非交互任务。

目录操作

cd -

回到前一目录

cd

回到用户目录

(cd dir && command)

进入目录dir,执行命令command然后回到当前目录

pushd .

将当前目录压入栈,以后你可以使用popd回到此目录

文件搜索

alias l='ls -l --color=auto'

单字符文件列表命令

ls -lrt

按日期显示文件. 参见newest

ls /usr/bin | pr -T9 -W$COLUMNS

在当前终端宽度上打印9列输出

find -name '*.[ch]' | xargs grep -E 'expr'

在当前目录及其子目录下所有.c和.h文件中寻找'expr'. 参见findrepo

find -type f -print0 | xargs -r0 grep -F 'example'

在当前目录及其子目录中的常规文件中查找字符串'example'

find -maxdepth 1 -type f | xargs grep -F 'example'

在当前目录下查找字符串'example'

find -maxdepth 1 -type d | while read dir; do echo $dir; echo cmd2; done

对每一个找到的文件执行多个命令(使用while循环)

find -type f ! -perm -444

寻找所有不可读的文件(对网站有用)

find -type d ! -perm -111

寻找不可访问的目录(对网站有用)

locate -r 'file[^/]*\.txt'

使用locate 查找所有符合*file*.txt的文件

look reference

在(有序)字典中快速查找

grep --color reference /usr/share/dict/words

使字典中匹配的正则表达式高亮

归档 and compression

gpg -c file

文件加密

gpg file.gpg

文件解密

tar -c dir/ | bzip2 > dir.tar.bz2

将目录dir/压缩打包

bzip2 -dc dir.tar.bz2 | tar -x

展开压缩包 (对tar.gz文件使用gzip而不是bzip2)

tar -c dir/ | gzip | gpg -c | ssh user@remote 'dd of=dir.tar.gz.gpg'

目录dir/压缩打包并放到远程机器上

find dir/ -name '*.txt' | tar -c --files-from=- | bzip2 > dir_txt.tar.bz2

将目录dir/及其子目录下所有.txt文件打包

find dir/ -name '*.txt' | xargs cp -a --target-directory=dir_txt/ --parents

将目录dir/及其子目录下所有.txt按照目录结构拷贝到dir_txt/

( tar -c /dir/to/copy ) | ( cd /where/to/ && tar -x -p )

拷贝目录copy/到目录/where/to/并保持文件属性

( cd /dir/to/copy && tar -c . ) | ( cd /where/to/ && tar -x -p )

拷贝目录copy/下的所有文件到目录/where/to/并保持文件属性

( tar -c /dir/to/copy ) | ssh -C user@remote 'cd /where/to/ && tar -x -p'

拷贝目录copy/到远程目录/where/to/并保持文件属性

dd bs=1M if=/dev/sda | gzip | ssh user@remote 'dd of=sda.gz'

将整个硬盘备份到远程机器上

rsync (使用 --dry-run选项进行测试)

rsync -P rsync://rsync.server.com/path/to/file file

只获取diffs.当下载有问题时可以作多次

rsync --bwlimit=1000 fromfile tofile

有速度限制的本地拷贝,对I/O有利

rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~/public_html/ remote.com:'~/public_html'

镜像网站(使用压缩和加密)

rsync -auz -e ssh remote:/dir/ . && rsync -auz -e ssh . remote:/dir/

同步当前目录和远程目录

ssh (安全 Shell)

ssh $USER@$HOST command

在$Host主机上以$User用户运行命令(默认命令为Shell)

ssh -f -Y $USER@$HOSTNAME xeyes

在名为$HOSTNAME的主机上以$USER用户运行GUI命令

scp -p -r $USER@$HOST: file dir/

拷贝到$HOST主机$USER'用户的目录下

ssh -g -L 8080:localhost:80 root@$HOST

由本地主机的8080端口转发到$HOST主机的80端口

ssh -R 1434:imap:143 root@$HOST

由主机的1434端口转发到imap的143端口

wget (多用途下载工具)

(cd cmdline && wget -nd -pHEKk http://www.pixelbeat.org/cmdline.html)

在当前目录中下载指定网页及其相关的文件使其可完全浏览

wget -c http://www.example.com/large.file

继续上次未完的下载

wget -r -nd -np -l1 -A '*.jpg' http://www.example.com/

批量下载文件到当前目录中

wget ftp://remote/file[1-9].iso/

下载FTP站上的整个目录

wget -q -O- http://www.pixelbeat.org/timeline.html | grep 'a href' | head

直接处理输出

echo 'wget url' | at 01:00

在下午一点钟下载指定文件到当前目录

wget --limit-rate=20k url

限制下载速度(这里限制到20KB/s)

wget -nv --spider --force-html -i bookmarks.html

检查文件中的链接是否存在

wget --mirror http://www.example.com/

更新网站的本地拷贝(可以方便地用于cron)

网络(ifconfig, route, mii-tool, nslookup 命令皆已过时)

ethtool eth0

显示网卡eth0的状态

ethtool --change eth0 autoneg off speed 100 duplex full

手动设制网卡速度

iwconfig eth1

显示无线网卡eth1的状态

iwconfig eth1 rate 1Mb/s fixed

手动设制无线网卡速度

iwlist scan

显示无线网络列表

ip link show

显示interface列表

ip link set dev eth0 name wan

重命名eth0为wan

ip link set dev eth0 up

启动interface eth0(或关闭)

ip addr show

显示网卡的IP地址

ip addr add 1.2.3.4/24 brd + dev eth0

添加ip和掩码(255.255.255.0)

ip route show

显示路由列表

ip route add default via 1.2.3.254

设置默认网关1.2.3.254

tc qdisc add dev lo root handle 1:0 netem delay 20msec

增加20ms传输时间到loopback设备(调试用)

tc qdisc del dev lo root

移除上面添加的传输时间

host pixelbeat.org

查寻主机的DNS IP地址

hostname -i

查寻本地主机的IP地址(同等于host `hostname`)

whois pixelbeat.org

查寻某主机或莫IP地址的whois信息

netstat -tupl

列出系统中的internet服务

netstat -tup

列出活跃的连接

windows networking (samba提供所有windows相关的网络支持)

smbtree

寻找一个windows主机. 参见findsmb

nmblookup -A 1.2.3.4

寻找一个指定ip的windows (netbios)名

smbclient -L windows_box

显示在windows主机或samba服务器上的所有共享

mount -t smbfs -o fmask=666,guest //windows_box/share /mnt/share

挂载一个windows共享

echo 'message' | smbclient -M windows_box

发送一个弹出信息到windows主机(XP sp2默认关闭此功能)

文本操作 (sed使用标准输入和标准输出,如果想要编辑文件,则需添加<oldfile >newfile)

sed 's/string1/string2/g'

使用string2替换string1

sed 's/\(.*\)1/\12/g'

将任何以1结尾的字符串替换为以2结尾的字符串

sed '/ *#/d; /^ *$/d'

删除注释和空白行

sed ':a; /\\$/N; s/\\\n//; ta'

连接结尾有\的行和其下一行

sed 's/[ \t]*$//'

删除每行后的空白

sed 's/\([\\`\\"$\\\\]\)/\\\1/g'

将所有转义字符之前加上\

seq 10 | sed "s/^/      /; s/ *\(.\{7,\}\)/\1/"

向右排N(任意数)列

sed -n '1000p;1000q'

输出第一千行

sed -n '10,20p;20q'

输出第10-20行

sed -n 's/.*<title>\(.*\)<\/title>.*/\1/ip;T;q'

输出HTML文件的<title></title>字段中的 内容

sort -t. -k1,1n -k2,2n -k3,3n -k4,4n

排序IPV4地址

echo 'Test' | tr '[:lower:]' '[:upper:]'

转换成大写

tr -dc '[:print:]' < /dev/urandom

过滤掉不能打印的字符

history | wc -l

计算指定单词出现的次数

集合操作 (如果是英文文本的话export LANG=C可以提高速度)

sort file1 file2 | uniq

两个未排序文件的并集

sort file1 file2 | uniq -d

两个未排序文件的交集

sort file1 file1 file2 | uniq -u

两个未排序文件的差 集

sort file1 file2 | uniq -u

两个未排序文件的对称差集

join -t'\0' -a1 -a2 file1 file2

两个有序文件的并集

join -t'\0' file1 file2

两个有序文件的交集

join -t'\0' -v2 file1 file2

两个有序文件的差集

join -t'\0' -v1 -v2 file1 file2

两个有序文件的对称差集

数学

echo '(1 + sqrt(5))/2' | bc -l

方便的计算器(计算 φ)

echo 'pad=20; min=64; (100*10^6)/((pad+min)*8)' | bc

更复杂地计算,这里计算了最大的FastE包率

echo 'pad=20; min=64; print (100E6)/((pad+min)*8)' | python

Python处理数值的科学表示法

echo 'pad=20; plot [64:1518] (100*10**6)/((pad+x)*8)' | gnuplot -persist

显示FastE包率相对于包大小的图形

echo 'obase=16; ibase=10; 64206' | bc

进制转换(十进制到十六进制)

echo $((0x2dec))

进制转换(十六进制到十进制)((shell数学扩展))

units -t '100m/9.58s' 'miles/hour'

单位转换(公尺到英尺)

units -t '500GB' 'GiB'

单位转换(SI 到IEC 前缀)

units -t '1 googol'

定义查找

seq 100 | (tr '\n' +; echo 0) | bc

加N(任意数)列. 参见 add and funcpy

日历

cal -3

显示一日历

cal 9 1752

显示指定月,年的日历

date -d fri

这个星期五是几号. 参见day

date --date='25 Dec' +%A

今年的圣诞节是星期几

date --date '1970-01-01 UTC 2147483647 seconds'

将一相对于1970-01-01 00:00的秒数转换成时间

TZ=':America/Los_Angeles' date

显示当前的美国西岸时间(使用tzselect寻找时区)

echo "mail -s 'get the train' P@draigBrady.com < /dev/null" | at 17:45

在指定的时间发送邮件

echo "DISPLAY=$DISPLAY xmessage cooker" | at "NOW + 30 minutes"

在给定的时间弹出对话框

locales

printf "%'d\n" 1234

根据locale输出正确的数字分隔

BLOCK_SIZE=\'1 ls -l

用ls命令作类适于locale()文件分组

echo "I live in `locale territory`"

从locale数据库中展开信息

LANG=en_IE.utf8 locale int_prefix

查找指定地区的locale信息。参见ccodes

locale | cut -d= -f1 | xargs locale -kc | less

显示在locale数据库中的所有字段

recode (iconv, dos2unix, unix2dos 已经过时了)

recode -l | less

显示所有有效的字符集及其别名

recode windows-1252.. file_to_change.txt

转换Windows下的ansi文件到当前的字符集(自动进行回车换行符的转换)

recode utf-8/CRLF.. file_to_change.txt

转换Windows下的ansi文件到当前的字符集

recode iso-8859-15..utf8 file_to_change.txt

转换Latin9(西欧)字符集文件到utf8

recode ../b64 < file.txt > file.b64

Base64编码

recode /qp.. < file.txt > file.qp

Quoted-printable格式解码

recode ..HTML < file.txt > file.html

将文本文件转换成HTML

recode -lf windows-1252 | grep euro

字符表中查找欧元符号

echo -n 0x80 | recode latin-9/x1..dump

显示字符在latin-9中的字符映射

echo -n 0x20AC | recode ucs-2/x2..latin-9/x

显示latin-9编码

echo -n 0x20AC | recode ucs-2/x2..utf-8/x

显示utf-8编码

光盘

gzip < /dev/cdrom > cdrom.iso.gz

保存光盘拷贝

mkisofs -V LABEL -r dir | gzip > cdrom.iso.gz

建立目录dir的光盘镜像

mount -o loop cdrom.iso /mnt/dir

将光盘镜像挂载到 /mnt/dir (只读)

cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast

清空一张CDRW

gzip -dc cdrom.iso.gz | cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom -

烧录光盘镜像 (使用 dev=ATAPI -scanbus 来确认该使用的 dev)

cdparanoia -B

在当前目录下将光盘音轨转录成wav文件

cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom -audio *.wav

将当前目录下的wav文件烧成音乐光盘 (参见cdrdao)

oggenc --tracknum='track' track.cdda.wav -o 'track.ogg'

将wav文件转换成ogg格式

磁盘空间 (参见FSlint)

ls -lSr

按文件大小降序显示文件

du -s * | sort -k1,1rn | head

显示当前目录下占用空间最大的一批文件. 参见dutop

df -h

显示空余的磁盘空间

df -i

显示空余的inode

fdisk -l

显示磁盘分区大小和类型(在root下执行)

rpm -q -a --qf '%10{SIZE}\t%{NAME}\n' | sort -k1,1n

显示所有在rpm发布版上安装的,并以包字节大小为序

dpkg-query -W -f='${Installed-Size;10}\t${Package}\n' | sort -k1,1n

显示所有在deb发布版上安装的,并以KB包大小为序

dd bs=1 seek=2TB if=/dev/null of=ext3.test

建立一个大的测试文件(不占用空间). 参见truncate

监视/调试

tail -f /var/log/messages

监视Messages日志文件

strace -c ls >/dev/null

总结/剖析命令进行的系统调用

strace -f -e open ls >/dev/null

显示命令进行的系统调用

ltrace -f -e getenv ls >/dev/null

显示命令调用的库函数

lsof -p $$

显示当前进程打开的文件

lsof ~

显示打开用户目录的进程

tcpdump not port 22

显示除了ssh外的网络交通. 参见tcpdump_not_me

ps -e -o pid,args --forest

以树状结构显示进程

ps -e -o pcpu,cpu,nice,state,cputime,args --sort pcpu | sed '/^ 0.0 /d'

以CPU占用率为序显示进程

ps -e -orss=,args= | sort -b -k1,1n | pr -TW$COLUMNS

以内存使用量为序显示进程. 参见ps_mem.py

ps -C firefox-bin -L -o pid,tid,pcpu,state

显示指定进程的所有线程信息

ps -p 1,2

显示指定进程ID的进程信息

last reboot

显示系统重启记录

free -m

显示(剩余的)内存总量(-m以MB为单位显示)

watch -n.1 'cat /proc/interrupts'

监测文件/proc/interrupts的变化

系统信息 (参见sysinfo)

uname -a

查看内核/操作系统/CPU信息

head -n1 /etc/issue

查看操作系统版本

cat /proc/partitions

显示所有在系统中注册的分区

grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo

显示系统可见的内存总量

grep "model name" /proc/cpuinfo

显示CPU信息

lspci -tv

显示PCI信息

lsusb -tv

显示USB信息

mount | column -t

显示所有挂载的文件系统并对齐输出

#

dmidecode -q | less

显示SMBIOS/DMI 信息

#

smartctl -A /dev/sda | grep Power_On_Hours

系统开机的总体时间

#

hdparm -i /dev/sda

显示关于磁盘sda的信息

#

hdparm -tT /dev/sda

检测磁盘sda的读取速度

#

badblocks -s /dev/sda

检测磁盘sda上所有的坏扇区

交互 (参见linux keyboard shortcut database)

readline

Line editor used by bash, python, bc, gnuplot, ...

screen

多窗口的虚拟终端, ...

mc

强大的文件管理器,可以浏览rpm, tar, ftp, ssh, ...

gnuplot

交互式并可进行脚本编程的画图工具

links

网页浏览器

miscellaneous

alias hd='od -Ax -tx1z -v'

方便的十六进制输出。 (用法举例: • hd /proc/self/cmdline | less)

alias realpath='readlink -f'

显示符号链接指向的真实路径((用法举例: • realpath ~/../$USER)

set | grep $USER

在当前环境中查找

touch -c -t 0304050607 file

改变文件的时间标签 (YYMMDDhhmm)

python -m SimpleHTTPServer

Serve current directory tree at http://$HOSTNAME:8000/

http://www.pixelbeat.org/cmdline_zh_CN.html

 

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