致谢 | 本篇译者:金步国(其他作品) | 本页最后更新:2006年10月20日[查看最新版本] | 电信镜象 | 网通镜象 | 教育网镜象
Apache模块 mod_logio
说明 对每个请求的输入/输出字节数以及HTTP头进行日志记录
状态 扩展(E)
模块名 logio_module
源文件 mod_logio.c Continue reading “Apache模块”



许多时候,根据与请求特征相关的环境变量来有选择地记录某些客户端请求会带来便利。首先,需要使用SetEnvIf指令来设置特定的环境变量以标识符合某种特定条件的请求,然后用CustomLog指令的 env= 子句,根据这些环境变量来决定记录或排除特定的请求。例如:

# 不记录本机发出的请求
SetEnvIf Remote_Addr “127\.0\.0\.1” dontlog
# 不记录对robots.txt文件的请求
SetEnvIf Request_URI “^/robots\.txt$” dontlog
# 记录其他请求
CustomLog logs/access_log common env=!dontlog


SetEnvIf Accept-Language “en” english
CustomLog logs/english_log common env=english
CustomLog logs/non_english_log common env=!english


# Don’t bother looking for favicon.ico
Redirect 404 /favicon.ico

# Don’t bother sending the custom error page for favicon.ico

ErrorDocument 404 “No favicon

SetEnvIf Request_URI \.ico$ ico-image
ErrorLog /path/to/error_log env!=ico-image

apache rewrite应用实例

RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{REMOTE_ADDR} !^
RewriteCond %{REMOTE_ADDR} !^ [NC]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/myhome/index/$ [NC]
RewriteRule (.*) /404/index.html


RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/home/
RewriteRule ^/home/(.*) http://www.gaizaoren.com/$1 [R=permanent,L]

Best Practices for Speeding Up Your Web Site(加快您的Web站点的最佳做法)

Best Practices for Speeding Up Your Web Site
The Exceptional Performance team has identified a number of best practices for making web pages fast. The list includes 35 best practices divided into 7 categories.


Filter by category:


Minimize HTTP Requests—尽量减少HTTP请求

tag: content

80% of the end-user response time is spent on the front-end. Most of this time is tied up in downloading all the components in the page: images, stylesheets, scripts, Flash, etc. Reducing the number of components in turn reduces the number of HTTP requests required to render the page. This is the key to faster pages.

One way to reduce the number of components in the page is to simplify the page’s design. But is there a way to build pages with richer content while also achieving fast response times? Here are some techniques for reducing the number of HTTP requests, while still supporting rich page designs.

Combined files are a way to reduce the number of HTTP requests by combining all scripts into a single script, and similarly combining all CSS into a single stylesheet. Combining files is more challenging when the scripts and stylesheets vary from page to page, but making this part of your release process improves response times.

CSS Sprites are the preferred method for reducing the number of image requests. Combine your background images into a single image and use the CSS background-image and background-position properties to display the desired image segment.

Image maps combine multiple images into a single image. The overall size is about the same, but reducing the number of HTTP requests speeds up the page. Image maps only work if the images are contiguous in the page, such as a navigation bar. Defining the coordinates of image maps can be tedious and error prone. Using image maps for navigation is not accessible too, so it’s not recommended.

Inline images use the data: URL scheme to embed the image data in the actual page. This can increase the size of your HTML document. Combining inline images into your (cached) stylesheets is a way to reduce HTTP requests and avoid increasing the size of your pages. Inline images are not yet supported across all major browsers.

Reducing the number of HTTP requests in your page is the place to start. This is the most important guideline for improving performance for first time visitors. As described in Tenni Theurer’s blog post Browser Cache Usage – Exposed!, 40-60% of daily visitors to your site come in with an empty cache. Making your page fast for these first time visitors is key to a better user experience.

top | discuss this rule
Continue reading “Best Practices for Speeding Up Your Web Site(加快您的Web站点的最佳做法)”

Apache debug模式

This document is a collection of notes regarding tools and techniques for debugging Apache httpd and its modules.

Got more tips? Send ’em to docs@httpd.apache.org. Thanks!

Using gdb
Getting a live backtrace on unix
Getting a live backtrace on Windows
Debugging intermittent crashes
Using ‘truss/trace/strace’ to trace system calls and signals
Getting the server to dump core
Solaris and coredumps
Getting and analyzing a TCP packet trace

Using gdb

If you use the gcc compiler, it is likely that the best debugger for your system is gdb. This is only a brief summary of how to run gdb on Apache — you should look at the info and man files for gdb to get more information on gdb commands and common debugging techniques. Before running gdb, be sure that the server is compiled with the -g option in CFLAGS to include the symbol information in the object files.

The only tricky part of running gdb on Apache is forcing the server into a single-process mode so that the parent process being debugged does the request-handling work instead of forking child processes. We have provided the -X option for that purpose, which will work fine for most cases. However, some modules don’t like starting up with -X, but are happy if you force only one child to run (using “MaxClients 1”); you can then use gdb’s attach command to debug the child server.

The following example, with user input in green, shows the output of gdb run on a server executable (httpd) in the current working directory and using the server root of /usr/local/apache:

% gdb httpd
GDB is free software and you are welcome to distribute copies of it
under certain conditions; type “show copying” to see the conditions.
There is absolutely no warranty for GDB; type “show warranty” for details.
GDB 4.16.gnat.1.13 (sparc-sun-solaris2.5),
Copyright 1996 Free Software Foundation, Inc…
(gdb) b ap_process_request
Breakpoint 1 at 0x49fb4: file http_request.c, line 1164.
(gdb) run -X -d /usr/local/apache
Starting program: /usr/local/apache/src/httpd -X -d /usr/local/apache

[at this point I make a request from another window]

Breakpoint 1, ap_process_request (r=0x95250) at http_request.c:1164
1164 if (ap_extended_status)
(gdb) s
1165 ap_time_process_request(r->connection->child_num, …
(gdb) n
1167 process_request_internal(r);
(gdb) s
process_request_internal (r=0x95250) at http_request.c:1028
1028 if (!r->proxyreq && r->parsed_uri.path) {
(gdb) s
1029 access_status = ap_unescape_url(r->parsed_uri.path);
(gdb) n
1030 if (access_status) {
(gdb) s
1036 ap_getparents(r->uri); /* OK …
(gdb) n
1038 if ((access_status = location_walk(r))) {
(gdb) n
1043 if ((access_status = ap_translate_name(r))) {
(gdb) n
1048 if (!r->proxyreq) {
(gdb) n
1053 if (r->method_number == M_TRACE) {
(gdb) n
1062 if (r->proto_num > HTTP_VERSION(1,0) && ap_ …
(gdb) n
1071 if ((access_status = directory_walk(r))) {
(gdb) s
directory_walk (r=0x95250) at http_request.c:288
288 core_server_config *sconf = ap_get_module_ …
(gdb) b ap_send_error_response
Breakpoint 2 at 0x47dcc: file http_protocol.c, line 2090.
(gdb) c

Breakpoint 2, ap_send_error_response (r=0x95250, recursive_error=0)
at http_protocol.c:2090
2090 BUFF *fd = r->connection->client;
(gdb) where
#0 ap_send_error_response (r=0x95250, recursive_error=0)
at http_protocol.c:2090
#1 0x49b10 in ap_die (type=403, r=0x95250) at http_request.c:989
#2 0x49b60 in decl_die (status=403, phase=0x62db8 “check access”, r=0x95250)
at http_request.c:1000
#3 0x49f68 in process_request_internal (r=0x95250) at http_request.c:1141
#4 0x49fe0 in ap_process_request (r=0x95250) at http_request.c:1167
#5 0x439d8 in child_main (child_num_arg=550608) at http_main.c:3826
#6 0x43b5c in make_child (s=0x7c3e8, slot=0, now=907958743)
at http_main.c:3898
#7 0x43ca8 in startup_children (number_to_start=6) at http_main.c:3972
#8 0x44260 in standalone_main (argc=392552, argv=0x75800) at http_main.c:4250
#9 0x449fc in main (argc=4, argv=0xefffee8c) at http_main.c:4534
(gdb) s
2091 int status = r->status;
(gdb) p status
$1 = 403

There are a few things to note about the above example:

the “gdb httpd” command does not include any command-line options for httpd: those are provided when the “run” command is done within gdb;
I set a breakpoint before starting the run so that execution would stop at the top of ap_process_request();
the “s” command steps through the code and into called procedures, whereas the “n” (next) command steps through the code but not into called procedures.
additional breakpoints can be set with the “b” command, and the run continued with the “c” command.
use the “where” command (a.k.a. “bt”) to see a stack backtrace that shows the order of called procedures and their parameter values.
use the “p” command to print the value of a variable.

A file in the the root directory called .gdbinit provides useful macros for printing out various internal structures of httpd like tables (dump_table), brigades (dump_brigade) and filter chains (dump_filters).

If you are debugging a repeatable crash, simply run gdb as above and make the request — gdb should capture the crash and provide a prompt where it occurs.

If you are debugging an apparent infinite loop, simply run gdb as above and type a Control-C — gdb will interrupt the process and provide a prompt where it was stopped.

If you are debugging a system crash and you have a core file from the crash, then do the following:

% gdb httpd -c core
(gdb) where

and it will (hopefully) print a stack backtrace of where the core dump occurred during processing.

Getting a live backtrace on unix

A backtrace will let you know the hierarchy of procedures that were called to get to a particular point in the process. On some platforms you can get a live backtrace of any process.

For SVR4-based variants of Unix, the pstack command for proc can be used to display a a live backtrace. For example, on Solaris it looks like

% /usr/proc/bin/pstack 10623
10623: httpd -d /usr/local/apache
ef5b68d8 poll (efffcd08, 0, 3e8)
ef5d21e0 select (0, ef612c28, 0, 0, 3e8, efffcd08) + 288
00042574 wait_or_timeout (0, 75000, 75000, 7c3e8, 60f40, 52c00) + 78
00044310 standalone_main (5fd68, 75800, 75c00, 75000, 2, 64) + 240
000449f4 main (3, efffeee4, efffeef4, 75fe4, 1, 0) + 374
000162fc _start (0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0) + 5c

Another technique is to use gdb to attach to the running process and then using “where” to print the backtrace, as in

% gdb httpd 10623
GDB is free software and you are welcome to distribute copies of it
under certain conditions; type “show copying” to see the conditions.
There is absolutely no warranty for GDB; type “show warranty” for details.
GDB 4.16.gnat.1.13 (sparc-sun-solaris2.5),
Copyright 1996 Free Software Foundation, Inc…

/usr/local/apache/src/10623: No such file or directory.
Attaching to program `/usr/local/apache/src/httpd’, process 10623
Reading symbols from /usr/lib/libsocket.so.1…done.
Reading symbols from /usr/lib/libnsl.so.1…done.
Reading symbols from /usr/lib/libc.so.1…done.
Reading symbols from /usr/lib/libdl.so.1…done.
Reading symbols from /usr/lib/libintl.so.1…done.
Reading symbols from /usr/lib/libmp.so.1…done.
Reading symbols from /usr/lib/libw.so.1…done.
Reading symbols from /usr/platform/SUNW,Ultra-1/lib/libc_psr.so.1…done.
0xef5b68d8 in ()
(gdb) where
#0 0xef5b68d8 in ()
#1 0xef5d21e8 in select ()
#2 0x4257c in wait_or_timeout (status=0x0) at http_main.c:2357
#3 0x44318 in standalone_main (argc=392552, argv=0x75800) at …
#4 0x449fc in main (argc=3, argv=0xefffeee4) at http_main.c:4534

Getting a live backtrace on Windows

Unzip the -symbols.zip files (obtained from the Apache download site) in the root Apache2 directory tree (where bin\, htdocs\, modules\ etc. are usually found.) These .pdb files should unpack alongside the .exe, .dll, .so binary files they represent, e.g., mod_usertrack.pdb will unpack alongside mod_usertrack.so.
Invoke drwtsn32 and ensure you are creating a crash dump file, you are dumping all thread contexts, your log and crash dump paths make sense, and (depending on the nature of the bug) you pick an appropriate crash dump type. (Full is quite large, but necessary sometimes for a programmer-type to load your crash dump into a debugger and begin unwinding exactly what has happened. Mini is sufficient for your first pass through the process.)
Note that if you previously installed and then uninstalled other debugging software, you may need to invoke drwtsn32 -i in order to make Dr Watson your default crash dump tool. This will replace the ‘report problem to MS’ dialogs. (Don’t do this if you have a full debugger such as Visual Studio or windbg installed on the machine, unless you back up the registry value for Debugger under the HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\AeDebug registry tree. Developers using multiple tools might want to keep copies of their different tools Debugger entries there, for fast switching.)
Invoke the Task Manager, Choose ‘show processes from all users’, and modify the View -> Select Columns to include at least the PID and Thread Count. You can change this just once and Task Manager should keep your preference.
Now, track down the errant Apache that is hanging. The parent process has about three threads, we don’t care about that one. The child worker process we want has many more threads (a few more than you configured with the ThreadsPerChild directive.) The process name is Apache (for 1.3 and 2.0) or httpd (for 2.2 and 2.4). Make note of the child worker’s PID.
Using the {pid} number you noted above, invoke the command

drwtsn32 -p {pid}

Voila, you will find in your ‘log file path’ a drwtsn32.log file, and if you choose to ‘append to existing log file’, jump through the ‘App:’ sections until you find the one for the process you just killed. Now you can identify about where ‘Stack Back Trace’ points to help identify what the server is doing.

You will note that many threads look identical, almost all of them polling for the next connection, and you don’t care about those. You will want to see the ones that are deep inside of a request at the time you kill them, and only the stack back trace entries for those. This can give folks a clue of where that request is hanging, which handler module picked up the request, and what filter it might be stuck in.

Debugging intermittent crashes

For situations where a child process is crashing intermittently, the server must be configured and started such that it produces core dumps which can be analyzed further.

To ensure that a core dump is written to a directory which is writable by the user which child processes run as (such as apache), the CoreDumpDirectory directive must be added to httpd.conf; for example:

CoreDumpDirectory /tmp

Before starting up the server, any process limits on core dump file size must be lifted; for example:

# ulimit -c unlimited
# apachectl start

On some platforms, further steps might be needed to enable core dumps – see Solaris and coredumps below.

When a child process crashes, a message like the following will be logged to the error_log:

[Mon Sep 05 13:35:39 2005] [notice] child pid 2027 exit signal Segmentation fault (11), possible coredump in /tmp

If the text “possible coredump in /tmp” does not appear in the error line, check that the ulimit was set correctly, that the permissions on the configured CoreDumpDirectory are suitable and that platform specific steps (Solaris and coredumps) have been done if needed.

To analyse the core dump, pass the core dump filename on the gdb command-line, and enter the command bt full at the gdb prompt:

% gdb /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd /tmp/core.2027

Core was generated by `/usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd -k start’

(gdb) bt full

If attempting to debug a threaded server, for example when using the worker MPM, use the following gdb command:

(gdb) thread apply all bt full

Using ‘truss/trace/strace’ to trace system calls and signals

Most Unix-based systems have at least one command for displaying a trace of system calls and signals as they are accessed by a running process. This command is called truss on most SVR4-based systems and either trace or strace on many other systems.

A useful tip for using the truss command on Solaris is the -f option (often also works with strace); it tells truss to follow and continue tracing any child processes forked by the main process. The easiest way to get a full trace of a server is to do something like:

% truss -f httpd -d /usr/local/apache >& outfile

% egrep ‘^10698:’ outfile

to view just the trace of the process id 10698.

If attempting to truss a threaded server, for example when using the worker MPM, the truss option -l is very useful as it prints also the LWP id after the process id. You can use something like

% egrep ‘^10698/1:’ outfile

to view just the trace of the process id 10698 and LWP id 1.

Other useful options for truss are

-a to print all command line parameters used for this executable.
-e to print all environment variables used for this executable.
-d to print timestamps.

Getting the server to dump core

Strangely enough, sometimes you actually want to force the server to crash so that you can get a look at some nutty behavior. Normally this can be done simply by using the gcore command. However, for security reasons, most Unix systems do not allow a setuid process to dump core, since the file contents might reveal something that is supposed to be protected in memory.

Here is one way to get a core file from a setuid Apache httpd process on Solaris, without knowing which httpd child might be the one to die [note: it is probably easier to use the MaxClients trick in the first section above].

# for pid in `ps -eaf | fgrep httpd | cut -d’ ‘ -f4`
truss -f -l -t\!all -S SIGSEGV -p $pid 2>&1 | egrep SIGSEGV &

The undocumented ‘-S’ flag to truss will halt the process in place upon receipt of a given signal (SIGSEGV in this case). At this point you can use:

# gcore PID

and then look at the backtrace as discussed above for gdb.

Solaris and coredumps

On Solaris use coreadm(1M) to make setuid() processes actually dump core. By default a setuid() process does not dump core. This is the reason why httpd servers started as root with child processes running as a different user (such as apache) do not coredump even when the CoreDumpDirectory directive had been set to an appropriate and writable directory and ulimit -c has a sufficient size. See also Debugging intermittent crashes above.


-bash-3.00# coreadm
global core file pattern: /var/core/core.%f.%p.u%u
global core file content: default
init core file pattern: core
init core file content: default
global core dumps: disabled
per-process core dumps: enabled
global setid core dumps: enabled
per-process setid core dumps: enabled
global core dump logging: disabled

Getting and analyzing a TCP packet trace

This is too deep a subject to fully describe in this documentation. Here are some pointers to useful discussions and tools:

snoop is a packet sniffer that is part of Solaris.
tcpdump is a packet sniffer that is available for Unix-based systems and Windows (windump). It is part of many free Unix-based distributions.
Wireshark is another packet sniffer that is available for Unix-based systems and Windows. It has a nice GUI and allows the analysis of the sniffed data.
tcptrace is a TCP dump file analysis tool.
tcpshow is another one.